Morse Code Part I – How to make a Simple AM Transmitter / Receiver

By Robin Mitchell

Morse code has its origins back to the first telegraph as a method for communicating. Since the only data that could be transferred was either the presence of electrical current or not, all letters and numbers were encoded in such a way that all could be interpreted with either a long pulse or short pulse. In this series of projects, I will show you how to create a Morse code system that you can use to communicate with others at distance! This project will start with the most basic of systems and you will transmit Morse code via a switch and a transmitter/receiver pair.

 

Required Materials

Transmitter

Receiver

 

Transmitter Schematic

DIY-Transmitter-Schematic

 

Receiver Schematic

DIY Receiver Schematic

 

How Does it Work?

The heart of both the transmitter and receiver is the use of premade modules that help dramatically. The reason for using premade modules is due to the difficulty in getting radio transmitters and receivers at that frequency to function correctly. Some problems that can occur include incorrect inductor sizes, PCB tracing issues, proven circuitry, and tuning.

The transmitter itself consists of a switch, a 4093-based oscillator with enable, and the 433Mhz transmitter module. If the switch is open, then the NAND gate U2D outputs 0V which in turn feeds 0V into one of the inputs to the NAND gate U2B. U2B is configured as an inverting Schmitt trigger oscillator where the frequency of the oscillator is determined by the size of C5 and R2. Increasing the value of either of these components decreases the output frequency of U2B and in this circuit, they have been chosen to produce an audible tone near 500Hz. But for the oscillator to oscillate it requires its second input to be connected to VCC and so when the switch is pressed, U2D feeds a voltage of VCC into the second input of U2B. When this happens, U2B outputs the 500Hz tone into U2C and then into the data input on the 433MHz transmitter. So, to summarize, when the switch is not pressed the transmitter transmits nothing and when the switch is pressed it transmits a 500Hz tone.

The receiver consists of a configurable Schmitt trigger input, an inverter, and output buffer. The input Schmitt trigger that takes the signal from the receiver module is used as to prevent noise on the input (RV1 and RV2 can be adjusted to give a clean signal from the receiver). The signal is then buffered with U2B to improve output impedance and this buffered signal is finally fed into a basic driver consisting of U1A, U1B, U1C, U1E, and U1F all in parallel to improve output current capabilities. The final output is fed into C1 to remove the DC offset so the signal can be fed into headphones.

 

Construction

Like all electronic projects posted by myself, this circuit is ideal for most circuit construction techniques. These include the use of a custom PCB (design files provided), stripboard, breadboard, and for those who are feeling adventurous, point-to-point. When building this project, the application that the circuit is used in should be considered. For example, if the objective is to have the transmitter/receiver portable, mount the circuit on a single board and use a project enclosure. Powering the circuits can be done with any voltage source about 6V and lower than 30V. The project built here uses 9V batteries that fit nicely to the side of the project base. You can find a downloadable version of the project files below:

Morse Code Project Files

 

 

DIY Morse Code Transmitter Circuit

Transmitter Circuit

DIY Morse Code Receiver Circuit

Receiver Circuit

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Showing 6 comments
  • freddie silver
    Reply

    May I respectfully suggest that it would help a lot if the sub circuits were labeled. For example on the transmitter
    it is assumed that the first sub circuit is a power supply, C1 is an optional waveform filter and U2A is an unused module short circuited and grounded to avoid any interference. But the main problem is that no comment is made as to the need of an antenna and if so where connected. Same for the receiver.
    The circuit I intend to build uses a relay contact instead of SW1. The relay is driven by a telephone ringer and the purpose is to hear the phone ringing signal at a remote location without using a regular cable between the two locations (transmission from office to garage type thing). The receiver would drive a bell or buzzer at the jack position through a 2222 or other power transistor. I hope you will find that the idea is workable

    • Robin Mitchell
      Reply

      Hi,

      That is a very good suggestion. From now on, sub circuits will be labelled!

      All the best,
      Robin

      • freddie silver
        Reply

        Please do not forget my question about the antenna. Is there a need for one (at both ends) and where connected.

  • Luis Arellano
    Reply

    Can I have the PCB layout copy for this?Just for project in school. Thank You.

  • Robin
    Reply

    Hi Luis,

    I apologize about that :( ! P2 is the transmitter whereas P1 is the receiver.
    All the best,

    Robin Mitchell

  • Luis Arellano
    Reply

    Is P1 and P2 on the schematic is the 433MHz Transmitter and Receiver? I’m confused with the connection because the schematic were seperate. Thank you.

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